The Bicyclus lineage of satyrid butterflies exhibits male-specific traits, the scent organs, used for chemical communication during courtship. We show that scent patches and hair-pencils arose via multiple, independent gains, in a correlated manner. Further, an initially nonsex-specific Dsx protein expression pattern in developing wing discs becomes male-specific and spatially refined to areas that develop the scent patches. Functional perturbations of dsx show that this gene activates patch development in males whereas hair-pencils develop in both sexes without Dsx input. Dsx in females is, instead, required to repress hair-pencils whereas Dsx in males regulates minor aspects of its development. These findings suggest that the patches and hair-pencils evolve as correlated composite organs presumably due to their functional integration. Divergence in the function of dsx isoforms occurred across the sexes, where the male isoform promotes patch development in males and the female isoform represses hair-pencil development in females, both leading to the development of male-limited traits. Furthermore, evolution in number of patches in males is due to the evolution of spatial regulation of dsx.
SEX AND ADOLESCENT PEER ACCEPTANCE
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The belief that women and men are held to different standards of sexual conduct is pervasive in contemporary American society. According to the sexual double standard, boys and men are rewarded and praised for heterosexual sexual contacts, whereas girls and women are derogated and stigmatized for similar behaviors. Although widely held by the general public, research findings on the sexual double standard remain equivocal, with qualitative studies and early attitudinal surveys generally finding evidence of the double standard and more recent experimental vignette designs often failing to find similar results. In this study, we extend prior research by directly measuring the social status of sexually permissive youth. Our results thus support the existence of an adolescent sexual double standard and suggest that sexual norms vary by both gender and socioeconomic origins. In contemporary American society, it is a commonly held belief that sexual behaviors are judged differently depending on the gender of a sexual actor Milhausen and Herold
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