In non-neural cells, Rap signaling can antagonize Ras signaling. In neurons, Rap also seems to oppose Ras in terms of synaptic function. Whereas Ras is critical for long-term potentiation LTP , Rap1 has been shown to be required for long-term depression LTD , and Rap2 has been implicated in depotentiation. The role of Rap signaling in vivo , however, remains poorly understood.
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Author contributions: K. Synaptic transmission depends on the matching and alignment of presynaptically released transmitters and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Neuroligin NL and Neurexin Nrxn proteins are trans -synaptic adhesion molecules that are important in validation and maturation of specific synapses. NL isoforms NL1 and NL2 have specific functional roles in excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, but the molecular basis behind this distinction is still unclear.
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