The Gregorian calendar is today's internationally accepted civil calendar and is also known as the Western or Christian calendar. The Gregorian Calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today. The days of the year in the Gregorian calendar are divided into 7-day weeks , and the weeks are numbered 1 to 52 or The international standard is to start the week on Monday. However, several countries, including the US and Canada, count Sunday as the first day of the week.
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Input and output format is specified with format specifiers and other characters. Additional specifiers relating with century and years in B. When output format for Gregorian calendar is specified as yyyy-MM-dd C'c' , date of 1 April in is displayed as 21c.
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The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. The calendar spaces leap years to make its average year The rule for leap years is:. Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by , but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by For example, the years , , and are not leap years, but the years and are. The calendar was a revision of the Julian calendar and had two aspects. This calendar era has the alternative secular name of " Common Era ". The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe and their overseas possessions. Over the next three centuries, the Protestant and Eastern Orthodox countries also moved to what they called the Improved calendar , with Greece being the last European country to adopt the calendar in
Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant , a form of monophonic , unaccompanied sacred song in Latin and occasionally Greek of the Roman Catholic Church. Gregorian chant developed mainly in western and central Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries, with later additions and redactions. Although popular legend credits Pope Gregory I with inventing Gregorian chant, scholars believe that it arose from a later Carolingian synthesis of Roman chant and Gallican chant [ citation needed ]. Gregorian chants were organized initially into four, then eight, and finally 12 modes. Typical melodic features include a characteristic ambitus , and also characteristic intervallic patterns relative to a referential mode final , incipits and cadences , the use of reciting tones at a particular distance from the final, around which the other notes of the melody revolve, and a vocabulary of musical motifs woven together through a process called centonization to create families of related chants. The scale patterns are organized against a background pattern formed of conjunct and disjunct tetrachords , producing a larger pitch system called the gamut. The chants can be sung by using six- note patterns called hexachords.